One result of the revelations of the fraudulent manipulation of images by Terje Hellesö – a former award winning photographer (with the award now retracted) by the on-line community on the Swedish Flashback forum has been the introduction of a whole new vocabulary in Swedish with variations of his first name to describe stolen and manipulated images.
A comment on my earlier post led me to look at
- English words which were of Swedish and Scandinavian origin, and
- English words dealing with manipulation of images.
List of English words of Swedish origin
List of English words of Scandinavian origin
Coming then to the manipulation of images there are a number of words in English which refer to some specific type of image manipulation. Manipulation has been evident from the onset of photography. Initially these referred to multiple-exposures or various dark-room techniques such as retouching , splicing negatives, scratching or air-brushing. The advent of computers and digital technology has led to “photoshopping” now becoming an accepted word (v. to photoshop which is an example of a noun becoming a verb). Digital manipulation may include resizing, shadowing, duplicating, cropping, re-scaling, retouching, emphasising, enhancing, splicing, color balancing, painting or “editing” all or part of the images being manipulated.
But there does not seem to be a word which particularly describes the act of stealing an image and then manipulating and combining it with other images. It seems therefore that there is space in English for a new word to describe the specific type of manipulation that Hellesö has carried out. My perception is that this form of manipulation may be quite wide-spread. It is also probably high time that Swedish contributed a new word to come into English usage. From the proposed verb “terja” I have chosen to go to “terjading” in preference to “terjaing” as being less difficult to pronounce.
ter.ja (tair – yah)
verb – to terja
the manipulation of a digital image by stealing images available on the internet and creating a montage of stolen and or manipulated images together with other images and the representation of such images as one’s own original work without attribution to the original image creator.
Related forms - terjad ¦ terjas ¦ terjading
Adjective – terjad
Origin – (2011) after Terje Hellesö and his theft and manipulation of wild-life images disclosed on an internet forum
I terjad yesterday, I terja today , he terjas always, he will terja tomorrow.
To terja an image is as reprehensible as to plagiarise.
Terje terjad his images probably starting from when he acquired his first digital camera.
While image manipulation may well be permissible, terjading is always unethical. The penalties for terjading however are not enshrined in law except – incidentally – for any theft or intentional fraud that can be proven.
His terjad photographs won him an award.